Assignment on Industrial Water Pollutants

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Assignment on Industrial Water Pollutants

July 25, 2019 Sample Papers 0

Industrial water pollutants have many origins. Rarely is an industrial effluent composed of one toxicant in water solution. Most effluents are complex mixtures which exert measurable effects on the receiving waters (i.e., change the amount of dissolved oxygen, the pH, the turbidity) as well as on organisms inhabiting the water. Effluents from industrial operations contain inorganic or organic chemicals or both.

Synergism and antagonism probably are involved in the final overall toxicity of the effluent. The measurement of these phenomena (except under special conditions) under field situations is very difficult. Hence, virtually nothing is known about synergism or antagonism as it occurs in receiving waters polluted with industrial effluents. Industrial chemicals include phenol, arsenic, fluorides, alcohols, ammonia, cyanide, mercury, nitrates, phosphorous, sodium, calcium, and bicarbonate. These chemicals directly harm aquatic organisms and add to the adverse effects in the river.

The wastes from industries consist of sanitary sewage, process waste, and cooling waters. The strength and composition of industrial wastes vary considerably from domestic sewage and even from industry to industry or with the same type of plant within a single industry. Each industry produces its own characteristic processed wastes. These wastes result from washing operations washing of the raw materials, the inter­mediate product and the final product, as well as washing the product containers.

Process wastes are divided into inorganics and organics. Organic process wastes result primarily from the metallurgical industries, the inorganic chemical industry, and the petroleum industry. Toxic chemicals and acids used in these industries include: sulfuric acid, iron sulfate, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, chromates, and cyanides. To prevent damage to the biological life in water courses, it is necessary to lagoon the wash waters and allow solar energy to evaporate the water, leaving the unaltered materials in the solid state. For the most part, the inorganic wastes do not post many biological problems other than toxicity. When combined with organic wastes, they can accentuate the problems of the disposal of the organic wastes.

A high sulfate concentration with fatty acids will stimulate the sulfate- reducing bacteria and create a hydrogen sulfide problem. 19Inorganic process wastes result primarily from the metallurgical industries, the inorganic chemical industry, and the petroleum industry. Toxic chemicals and acids used in these industries include: sulfuric acid, iron sulfate, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, chromates, and cyanides.

To prevent damage to the biological life in water courses, it is necessary to lagoon the wash waters and allow solar energy to evaporate the water, leaving the unaltered materials in the solid state. For the most part, the inorganic wastes do not post many biological problems other than toxicity. When combined with organic wastes, they can accentuate the problems of the disposal of the organic wastes. A high sulfate concentration with fatty acids will stimulate the sulfate- reducing bacteria and create a hydrogen sulfide problem. The major pollution problem from industrial wastes lies in the disposal of the organic process wastes. The major sources of organic wastes are the food-processing industries, the paper industry, the tex­tile industry, the petroleum industry, and the chemical industry. It is impossible to discuss all the different types of waste in the chemical industry.